Defense Contract Spending Declines $66 Billion from Fiscal Year 2009 to 2015

The map below shows defense contract spending by MSA from FY 2000 to 2015. The circles are proportional (i.e., they are scaled to the value of defense contracts in that MSA). Beginning in FY 2001, the color of each circle indicates whether defense contract spending in the MSA declined (red) or increased (green) from a year earlier. The map can be manually advanced or will advance automatically when you click on “Play.”

The table below the map shows DoD contract spending in the top 100 MSAs and updates each time a new fiscal year is selected. The map informs the following question categories:

  •         Which MSAs are the largest recipients of DoD contract spending?
  •         In which regions is DoD contract spending concentrated?
  •         In which MSAs is DoD contract spending increasing/decreasing from the prior year?

For example, the map shows DoD contract spending surges in the Washington, D.C. MSA from FY 2000 to FY 2010 when spending climbed from $8.0 billion to $39.5 billion before declining beginning in FY 2011.

To learn more about Chmura’s expertise and research regarding defense spending and supply chain mapping, contact us here.

Department of Defense (DoD) contract spending grew at a strong pace in the first decade of the 21st century, but has been in decline since fiscal year (FY) 2010 based on Chmura’s proprietary FedSpendTOP data.[1],[2] Spending peaked at $336.7 billion in FY 2009 and has since fallen by 19.6% to $270.7 billion in FY 2015.[3] Contributing to the decline was the Budget Control Act of 2011 (sequestration took effect in 2013) and the drawdown of U.S. forces in both Iraq and Afghanistan.

U.S. Defense Contract Spending in Nominal DollarsU.S. Defense Contract Spending in Nominal Dollars

The impact of defense contract spending cuts has been and will continue to be uneven across regions and states. This analysis shows which metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) have been most impacted by defense contract spending cuts. At the aggregate level, some of the largest MSAs have seen the most dramatic cuts from fiscal year 2009—the peak nationally of DoD contract spending—to fiscal year 2015, which is the most recent fiscal year of data available. On a per capita basis, however, the 10 largest declines in defense contract spending were experienced in MSAs with populations of less than 500,000.

While the Washington, D.C. MSA—home to the headquarters of several large defense contractors including Lockheed Martin, General Dynamics, and Northrop Grumman—experienced the largest drop in defense contract spending ($6.5 billion) from FY 2009 to 2015, on a per capita basis the decline was only $1,072; this was the 31st largest per capita decline in defense contract spending among the MSAs. Defense contract spending fell $2.3 billion in the New York metropolitan area from FY 2009 to 2015; this, however, only represented a loss of $116 on a per capita basis.

In contrast, a $2.3 billion decline in the Oshkosh MSA represented a loss of $13,378 per person, the largest per capita decline among all MSAs over this period. The Oshkosh MSA is home to the Oshkosh Corporation, a military vehicle manufacturer, which has reduced its workforce in response to declining defense contract spending.

From FY 2009 to 2015, defense contract spending decreased by $301.9 million or $2,891 per capita in the Lima, Ohio MSA; the Joint Systems Manufacturing Center, a government-owned, contractor-operated tank production facility in Lima operated by General Dynamics Land Systems, has experienced a production hiatus as the Army shifts production from the M1A2 Abrams fleet to the M1A3.      

The labor market impact of defense contract spending cuts can vary widely depending on the type and nature of the defense contract spending. Every industry in the area will have a different economic impact based on the size of its local supply chain and the spending spillover from its directly employed workers. It stands to reason, however, that these spending cuts, as steep as they are, can be a driving force to upset labor markets in many of the nation’s MSAs, both large and small.

Defense Contract Cuts by MSA, FY 2009 to 2015
MSA Total Defense Contract Cuts FY 2009 to 2015
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA -$6,534,964,135
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA -$4,540,569,745
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA -$4,334,692,207
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI MSA -$2,930,431,025
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSA -$2,338,177,154
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA -$2,268,233,215
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI MSA -$2,238,919,430
New Orleans-Metairie, LA MSA -$2,159,563,955
York-Hanover, PA MSA -$2,016,694,563
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH MSA -$1,779,815,870
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN MSA -$1,717,377,395
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN MSA -$1,664,995,187
Memphis, TN-MS-AR MSA -$1,620,314,173
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX MSA -$1,488,712,685
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX MSA -$1,391,688,781
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT MSA -$1,359,347,332
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI MSA -$1,140,970,964
El Paso, TX MSA -$1,112,974,753
Bellingham, WA MSA -$966,597,640
Charleston-North Charleston, SC MSA -$910,442,557

 

Defense Contract Cuts per Capita by MSA, FY 2009 to 2015
MSATotal Defense Contract Cuts FY 2009 to 2015$ Cut per Capita
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA -$2,268,233,215 -$13,378
York-Hanover, PA MSA -$2,016,694,563 -$4,554
Bellingham, WA MSA -$966,597,640 -$4,553
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI MSA -$1,140,970,964 -$3,564
Lima, OH MSA -$301,908,063 -$2,891
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL MSA -$725,869,109 -$2,769
Watertown-Fort Drum, NY MSA -$300,052,222 -$2,551
Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL MSA -$287,665,595 -$2,488
Fort Wayne, IN MSA -$852,247,912 -$1,983
California-Lexington Park, MD MSA -$213,631,915 -$1,917
New Orleans-Metairie, LA MSA -$2,159,563,955 -$1,710
Anchorage, AK MSA -$591,040,245 -$1,478
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD MSA -$248,450,379 -$1,470
Roanoke, VA MSA -$450,132,483 -$1,431
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN MSA -$1,717,377,395 -$1,343
El Paso, TX MSA -$1,112,974,753 -$1,327
Binghamton, NY MSA -$323,305,058 -$1,314
Columbus, GA-AL MSA -$410,919,789 -$1,310
Bangor, ME MSA -$192,447,838 -$1,260
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL MSA -$713,521,119 -$1,256

 

Defense Contract Gains by MSA, FY 2009 to 2015
MSA Total Defense Contract Gains FY 2009 to 2015
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI MSA $2,003,699,292
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA MSA $1,713,789,488
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD MSA $1,054,626,982
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA $803,582,514
Pittsburgh, PA MSA $803,508,009
Norwich-New London, CT MSA $777,377,637
Mobile, AL MSA $679,625,713
Portland-South Portland, ME MSA $575,384,923
Amarillo, TX MSA $513,600,860
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA $415,749,550

 

Defense Contract Gains per Capita by MSA, FY 2009 to 2015
MSA Federal Contract Gains 2009 to 2015 $ Gains Per Capita
Norwich-New London, CT MSA $777,377,637 $2,859
Pittsfield, MA MSA $301,455,515 $2,358
Amarillo, TX MSA $513,600,860 $1,960
Mobile, AL MSA $679,625,713 $1,636
Lynchburg, VA MSA $326,223,707 $1,255
Portland-South Portland, ME MSA $575,384,923 $1,093
Pine Bluff, AR MSA $85,602,563 $914
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA $803,582,514 $848
Idaho Falls, ID MSA $91,296,319 $653
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI MSA $2,003,699,292 $568
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics and U.S. Census Bureau
Note: July 2015 population estimates used to calculate cuts and gains per capita.

 

[1] The U.S. federal government’s fiscal year begins on October 1 of the previous calendar year and ends on September 30. For example, FY 2001 began October 1, 2000 and ended September 30, 2001.

[2] FedSpendTOP data are derived from USASpending.gov data but provide a more accurate picture of federal spending based on the time and place of performance when compared with published federal awards data. The data are adjusted for the length of the contract as well as for an associated subcontract’s place of performance (i.e., regional spending is based on place of performance with out-of-region awards subcontracted into the area added in and in region awards subcontracted out of the region subtracted out); FedSpendTOP data also include purchases by non-DoD agencies which end up in DoD products and have been corrected for errors identified during Chmura’s quality control process.

[3] In nominal dollars (i.e., not adjusted for inflation).

Why Railroads, Religious Organizations, and Self-Employed Are Not Included in Most Employment Estimates

The evolution of employment data collection in the United States has led to a few exceptions that can have an impact on your view of employment in a region.

To understand these missing data, a brief overview of a few employment data sources is helpful.

The Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics with the cooperation of State Employment Security Agencies, collects employment data from nearly every employer in the nation—specifically, any employers that report to U.S. Unemployment Insurance programs. The program began in the 1930s as the ES-202 program, only adopting the QCEW name relatively recently in 2003. Due to the QCEW’s nearly comprehensive sample (about 97% of all employment), the quarterly data serve as a benchmark for other employment estimates such as the Current Employment Statistics (used in the monthly job reports often covered in the media).

This near census of employment information collected in the QCEW program is called “covered workers” and is subdivided into private, local government, state government, and federal government jobs. However, some groups are not covered:

  • Members of the armed forces
  • The self-employed
  • Proprietors
  • Domestic workers
  • Unpaid family workers
  • Railroad workers
  • Some religious organizations

Understandably, some of these non-covered workers would be difficult to track. But why are railroad workers and religious organizations not covered? Why not proprietors? It has to do with the fact that QCEW data are collected with the cooperation of state unemployment insurance agencies.

In the 1920s, the railroad industry’s private pension plans already faced a number of problems, which were then compounded by the Great Depression in the 1930s. There was a push for establishing a separate federal retirement program for railroad workers around the same time as the new Social Security system was being created. The initiatives continued under separate unemployment insurance laws, and today the Railroad Retirement Board administers the separate unemployment insurance for railroad workers. Due to this separate program, railroad workers are not “covered” in the QCEW.

Religious organizations have a more recent reason for not being covered. Under a 1981 Supreme Court ruling, schools affiliated with a religion are not required to be covered by Unemployment Insurance programs. Due to differences between state UI laws, certain types of nonprofit employers, including religious organizations, are given a choice of coverage or noncoverage. While there is an industry (NAICS) code for religious organizations, some employment is covered in NAICS 8131 but most is non-covered.

Finally, proprietors are generally not included in the QCEW data because, as sole proprietors or partners in a firm, they are not required to pay unemployment insurance for themselves, no matter how large the firm is.

Recognizing the need for a more complete view of local labor force, Chmura includes estimates of employment for railroads, religious organizations, and the self-employed to its JobsEQ® technology platform. “Total employment” is the default employment type in JobsEQ, representing the sum of these three data sets and covered employment.

Employment TypesEmployment Types

We are excited about these break-outs within JobsEQ and the insights they provide our users about their regional economies. If you are interested in seeing a demonstration, please contact us.

Research support provided by Patrick Clapp.

SleepBetter Lost-Hour Economic Index

These are the findings of Chmura Economics & Analytics in a study entitled “Estimating the Economic Loss of Daylight Saving Time for U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas” commissioned by the Carpenter Co. The study focused on only the aspects of economic losses where solid evidence from peer-reviewed academic journals could be obtained, showing how the DST change can lead to an increase in heart attacks, workplace injuries in the mining and construction sectors, and increased cyberloafing that reduces productivity for people who typically work in offices. A reasonable economic cost was then developed from the economic costs of heart attacks, workplace accidents and cyberloafing and applied to the more than 300 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) in the U.S.


MSATotal Cost of
Lost Hour
Population
in 2010
Index RankPer Capita
Cost
% Difference
From Nat'l Avg.
MSA Rank
National $433,982,548.00 260,392,304 $1.65449
Morgantown, WV $445,685.00 129,709 1 $3.37947 104.26% 293
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH $930,759.00 287,702 2 $3.18188 92.32% 162
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH $519,472.00 162,056 3 $3.15273 90.56% 245
Charleston, WV $973,594.00 304,284 4 $3.14694 90.21% 156
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA $925,487.00 309,544 5 $2.94061 77.74% 151
Lakeland, FL $1,582,213.00 602,095 6 $2.58458 56.22% 87
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL $7,283,123.00 2,783,243 7 $2.57369 55.56% 18
Ocala, FL $863,182.00 331,298 8 $2.56256 54.89% 147
North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL $1,822,027.00 702,281 9 $2.55172 54.23% 73
Punta Gorda, FL $404,984.00 159,978 10 $2.48982 50.49% 247
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA $1,412,054.00 563,631 11 $2.46403 48.93% 90
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC $662,576.00 269,291 12 $2.41994 46.27% 168
Pittsburgh, PA $5,794,723.00 2,356,285 13 $2.41877 46.19% 22
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL $1,336,302.00 543,376 14 $2.41877 46.19% 96
Evansville, IN-KY $873,111.00 358,676 15 $2.39418 44.71% 142
Tulsa, OK $2,277,053.00 937,478 16 $2.38892 44.39% 54
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL $334,825.00 138,028 17 $2.38584 44.20% 283
Bloomington, IN $464,931.00 192,714 18 $2.37282 43.42% 218
Chattanooga, TN-GA $1,268,241.00 528,143 19 $2.36178 42.75% 98
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL $1,187,424.00 494,593 20 $2.36128 42.72% 103
Bangor, ME $368,824.00 153,923 21 $2.35671 42.44% 259
Alexandria, LA $367,169.00 153,922 22 $2.34615 41.81% 257
Palm Coast, FL   $227,338.00 95,696 23 $2.33651 41.22% 347
Muncie, IN $279,430.00 117,671 24 $2.33557 41.17% 317
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL $428,270.00 180,822 25 $2.32946 40.80% 224
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL $1,455,015.00 618,754 26 $2.31281 39.79% 84
Mobile, AL $967,710.00 412,992 27 $2.30459 39.29% 126
Jacksonville, FL $3,146,585.00 1,345,596 28 $2.29993 39.01% 40
Toledo, OH $1,523,209.00 651,429 29 $2.29976 39.00% 82
Lafayette, IN $471,375.00 201,789 30 $2.29752 38.87% 210
Canton-Massillon, OH $943,763.00 404,422 31 $2.29519 38.72% 128
Johnson City, TN $461,978.00 198,716 32 $2.28654 38.20% 214
Dayton, OH $1,952,542.00 841,502 33 $2.28210 37.93% 62
Knoxville, TN $1,617,373.00 698,030 34 $2.27890 37.74% 74
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL $1,037,154.00 448,991 35 $2.27193 37.32% 110
Terre Haute, IN $394,960.00 172,425 36 $2.25291 36.17% 233
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL $12,725,469.00 5,564,635 37 $2.24919 35.95% 8
Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce, FL $969,275.00 424,107 38 $2.24782 35.86% 117
State College, PA $351,910.00 153,990 39 $2.24765 35.85% 256
Asheville, NC $969,459.00 424,858 40 $2.24427 35.65% 116
Lewiston-Auburn, ME $243,661.00 107,702 41 $2.22512 34.49% 334
Lexington-Fayette, KY $1,066,009.00 472,099 42 $2.22084 34.23% 106
Jackson, TN $260,264.00 115,425 43 $2.21771 34.04% 321
Michigan City-La Porte, IN $251,036.00 111,467 44 $2.21503 33.88% 329
Cheyenne, WY $206,604.00 91,738 45 $2.21503 33.88% 354
Naples-Marco Island, FL $723,778.00 321,520 46 $2.21405 33.82% 149
Bowling Green, KY $282,675.00 125,953 47 $2.20733 33.42% 302
Kokomo, IN $221,462.00 98,688 48 $2.20711 33.40% 345
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI $715,354.00 319,224 49 $2.20402 33.21% 150
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC $818,612.00 365,497 50 $2.20285 33.14% 141
Anderson, IN $294,790.00 131,636 51 $2.20256 33.13% 295
Atlantic City, NJ $612,213.00 274,549 52 $2.19317 32.56% 169
Columbus, IN $170,968.00 76,794 53 $2.18967 32.35% 362
Johnstown, PA $318,637.00 143,679 54 $2.18119 31.83% 275
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA $1,215,731.00 549,475 55 $2.17610 31.53% 94
Lawton, OK $274,358.00 124,098 56 $2.17442 31.43% 307
Louisville, KY-IN $2,826,250.00 1,283,566 57 $2.16562 30.89% 42
Morristown, TN $300,143.00 136,608 58 $2.16094 30.61% 286
Wheeling, WV-OH $323,960.00 147,950 59 $2.15361 30.17% 268
Wichita Falls, TX $331,130.00 151,306 60 $2.15244 30.10% 266
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA $1,236,309.00 565,773 61 $2.14919 29.90% 91
Owensboro, KY $249,981.00 114,752 62 $2.14258 29.50% 322
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA $868,062.00 398,604 63 $2.14190 29.46% 129
Gainesville, FL $574,037.00 264,275 64 $2.13636 29.13% 173
Altoona, PA $275,914.00 127,089 65 $2.13528 29.06% 305
Williamsport, PA $251,895.00 116,111 66 $2.13372 28.97% 319
Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL $364,847.00 168,852 67 $2.12517 28.45% 236
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI $9,268,747.00 4,296,250 68 $2.12188 28.25% 13
Birmingham, AL $2,431,810.00 1,128,047 69 $2.12028 28.15% 50
Elizabethtown, KY $257,362.00 119,736 70 $2.11403 27.78% 313
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY $2,440,468.00 1,135,509 71 $2.11384 27.76% 49
Ocean City, NJ $207,878.00 97,265 72 $2.10205 27.05% 351
Fort Wayne, IN $888,743.00 416,257 73 $2.09993 26.92% 122
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV $265,544.00 124,454 74 $2.09854 26.84% 311
Huntsville, AL $890,913.00 417,593 75 $2.09832 26.83% 119
Erie, PA $598,252.00 280,566 76 $2.09720 26.76% 164
Montgomery, AL $798,346.00 374,536 77 $2.09646 26.71% 136
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS $528,298.00 248,820 78 $2.08825 26.22% 185
Carson City, NV $116,608.00 55,274 79 $2.07490 25.41% 366
Anniston, AL $250,003.00 118,572 80 $2.07373 25.34% 316
Mansfield, OH $261,914.00 124,475 81 $2.06951 25.08% 310
Sandusky, OH $161,894.00 77,079 82 $2.06578 24.86% 363
Elkhart-Goshen, IN $414,780.00 197,559 83 $2.06496 24.81% 216
Florence, AL $308,807.00 147,137 84 $2.06422 24.76% 206
Auburn-Opelika, AL $293,975.00 140,247 85 $2.06161 24.61% 276
Lafayette, LA $573,540.00 273,738 86 $2.06072 24.55% 167
Lima, OH $221,940.00 106,331 87 $2.05289 24.08% 336
Clarksville, TN-KY $571,732.00 273,949 88 $2.05264 24.07% 166
Lebanon, PA $278,565.00 133,568 89 $2.05123 23.98% 292
Reading, PA $857,038.00 411,442 90 $2.04871 23.83% 125
Gadsden, AL $217,236.00 104,430 91 $2.04596 23.66% 338
York-Hanover, PA $904,776.00 434,972 92 $2.04583 23.65% 113
Barnstable Town, MA $447,310.00 215,888 93 $2.03784 23.17% 198
Ann Arbor, MI $713,184.00 344,791 94 $2.03440 22.96% 146
Springfield, OH $285,322.00 138,333 95 $2.02862 22.61% 285
Wilmington, NC $747,299.00 362,315 96 $2.02861 22.61% 139
Dothan, AL $299,824.00 145,639 97 $2.02478 22.38% 270
Monroe, LA $362,816.00 176,441 98 $2.02244 22.24% 229
Hattiesburg, MS $293,083.00 142,842 99 $2.01802 21.97% 272
Lancaster, PA $1,064,016.00 519,445 100 $2.01465 21.77% 99
Decatur, AL $313,503.00 153,829 101 $2.00444 21.15% 258
Oklahoma City, OK $2,550,073.00 1,252,987 102 $2.00169 20.99% 43
Pascagoula, MS $330,101.00 162,246 103 $2.00107 20.95% 242
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV $546,398.00 269,140 104 $1.99674 20.69% 172
Casper, WY $153,138.00 75,450 105 $1.99624 20.66% 364
Greenville, SC $1,289,377.00 636,986 106 $1.99086 20.33% 83
Greensboro-High Point, NC $1,464,797.00 723,801 107 $1.99044 20.31% 71
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA $2,360,696.00 1,167,764 108 $1.98827 20.17% 46
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV $3,941,238.00 1,951,269 109 $1.98658 20.07% 30
Indianapolis, IN $3,537,009.00 1,756,241 110 $1.98081 19.72% 35
Missoula, MT $219,657.00 109,299 111 $1.97660 19.47% 332
Ithaca, NY $203,399.00 101,564 112 $1.96970 19.05% 342
Dover, DE $324,756.00 162,310 113 $1.96789 18.94% 241
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH $4,151,800.00 2,077,240 114 $1.96580 18.82% 28
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ $1,614,902.00 821,173 115 $1.93420 16.91% 64
Prescott, AZ $414,603.00 211,033 116 $1.93229 16.79% 203
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA $3,141,889.00 1,600,852 117 $1.93032 16.67% 38
Worcester, MA $1,565,876.00 798,552 118 $1.92861 16.57% 67
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME $1,005,605.00 514,098 119 $1.92385 16.28% 101
Billings, MT $308,857.00 158,050 120 $1.92200 16.17% 249
Springfield, MA $1,353,410.00 692,942 121 $1.92098 16.11% 77
Ames, IA $174,611.00 89,542 122 $1.91794 15.92% 356
Fayetteville, NC $713,043.00 366,383 123 $1.91413 15.69% 137
Fort Smith, AR-OK $580,963.00 298,592 124 $1.91364 15.66% 158
Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA $403,825.00 208,178 125 $1.90787 15.31% 205
Rapid City, SD $245,126.00 126,382 126 $1.90763 15.30% 300
Lewiston, ID-WA $118,048.00 60,888 127 $1.90686 15.25% 365
Lake Charles, LA $386,936.00 199,607 128 $1.90657 15.24% 213
Akron, OH $1,359,432.00 703,200 129 $1.90138 14.92% 75
Baton Rouge, LA $1,550,929.00 802,484 130 $1.90084 14.89% 66
Jackson, MS $1,040,664.00 539,057 131 $1.89874 14.76% 95
Cleveland, TN $223,348.00 115,788 132 $1.89718 14.67% 318
Iowa City, IA $293,659.00 152,586 133 $1.89286 14.41% 255
Richmond, VA $2,419,992.00 1,258,251 134 $1.89163 14.33% 44
Baltimore-Towson, MD $5,209,507.00 2,710,489 135 $1.89034 14.26% 20
Blacksburg, VA $312,735.00 162,958 136 $1.88752 14.08% 244
Orlando, FL $4,092,620.00 2,134,411 137 $1.88588 13.99% 26
Great Falls, MT $155,815.00 81,327 138 $1.88437 13.89% 359
Charlottesville, VA $384,484.00 201,559 139 $1.87614 13.40% 208
Farmington, NM $247,716.00 130,044 140 $1.87350 13.24% 301
Winston-Salem, NC $909,101.00 477,717 141 $1.87168 13.13% 105
Greenville, NC $359,766.00 189,510 142 $1.86714 12.85% 220
Pittsfield, MA $248,995.00 131,219 143 $1.86631 12.80% 296
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD $271,947.00 143,577 144 $1.86290 12.60% 273
Reno-Sparks, NV $805,515.00 425,417 145 $1.86230 12.56% 115
Columbia, MO $327,147.00 172,786 146 $1.86219 12.55% 232
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI $378,070.00 200,169 147 $1.85766 12.28% 215
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL $716,738.00 379,690 148 $1.85661 12.22% 134
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI $614,919.00 326,589 149 $1.85185 11.93% 148
St. Louis, MO-IL $5,295,893.00 2,812,896 150 $1.85172 11.92% 19
Jackson, MI $300,340.00 160,248 151 $1.84336 11.42% 251
Columbus, OH $3,441,849.00 1,836,536 152 $1.84324 11.41% 32
Coeur d'Alene, ID $259,303.00 138,494 153 $1.84148 11.30% 280
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN $3,984,972.00 2,130,151 154 $1.83994 11.21% 27
Battle Creek, MI $254,031.00 136,146 155 $1.83515 10.92% 288
Bay City, MI $201,047.00 107,771 156 $1.83479 10.90% 335
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI $292,506.00 156,813 157 $1.83460 10.89% 254
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY $1,621,964.00 870,716 158 $1.83212 10.74% 59
Amarillo, TX $462,864.00 249,881 159 $1.82184 10.11% 184
Roanoke, VA $570,732.00 308,707 160 $1.81834 9.90% 153
Harrisonburg, VA $230,573.00 125,228 161 $1.81091 9.45% 306
Burlington, NC $277,822.00 151,131 162 $1.80802 9.28% 261
Trenton-Ewing, NJ $673,675.00 366,513 163 $1.80780 9.27% 140
Jefferson City, MO $275,316.00 149,807 164 $1.80754 9.25% 265
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA $307,311.00 167,819 165 $1.80106 8.86% 237
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ $287,125.00 156,898 166 $1.79988 8.79% 253
Hot Springs, AR $175,556.00 96,024 167 $1.79815 8.68% 349
Cumberland, MD-WV $188,630.00 103,299 168 $1.79599 8.55% 339
Binghamton, NY $458,868.00 251,725 169 $1.79288 8.36% 186
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC $1,015,110.00 556,877 170 $1.79285 8.36% 92
Dubuque, IA $170,614.00 93,653 171 $1.79177 8.30% 353
Rocky Mount, NC $277,596.00 152,392 172 $1.79160 8.29% 263
Flint, MI $775,183.00 425,790 173 $1.79060 8.23% 120
Springfield, IL $382,338.00 210,170 174 $1.78923 8.14% 204
Lynchburg, VA $459,487.00 252,634 175 $1.78884 8.12% 183
Glens Falls, NY $234,236.00 128,923 176 $1.78696 8.01% 299
Utica-Rome, NY $543,419.00 299,397 177 $1.78516 7.90% 160
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN $2,880,135.00 1,589,934 178 $1.78166 7.69% 37
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI $311,558.00 172,188 179 $1.77962 7.56% 234
Danville, VA $192,681.00 106,561 180 $1.77840 7.49% 337
Goldsboro, NC $221,405.00 122,623 181 $1.77585 7.34% 309
Florence, SC $370,844.00 205,566 182 $1.77431 7.24% 267
Kingston, NY $329,107.00 182,493 183 $1.77370 7.21% 226
Monroe, MI $273,894.00 152,021 184 $1.77202 7.10% 264
Lansing-East Lansing, MI $833,169.00 464,036 185 $1.76592 6.74% 109
Holland-Grand Haven, MI $473,601.00 263,801 186 $1.76574 6.72% 174
Pine Bluff, AR $179,721.00 100,258 187 $1.76307 6.56% 344
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR $243,750.00 136,027 188 $1.76242 6.52% 287
Springfield, MO $782,413.00 436,712 189 $1.76210 6.50% 112
Salisbury, MD $224,297.00 125,203 190 $1.76197 6.50% 308
Spartanburg, SC $509,124.00 284,307 191 $1.76127 6.45% 163
College Station-Bryan, TX $408,296.00 228,660 192 $1.75620 6.15% 193
St. Joseph, MO-KS $227,058.00 127,329 193 $1.75388 6.01% 303
Syracuse, NY $1,180,655.00 662,577 194 $1.75257 5.93% 80
Rochester, NY $1,877,514.00 1,054,323 195 $1.75146 5.86% 51
Elmira, NY $157,948.00 88,830 196 $1.74881 5.70% 357
Memphis, TN-MS-AR $2,337,491.00 1,316,100 197 $1.74683 5.58% 41
Winchester, VA-WV $227,756.00 128,472 198 $1.74361 5.39% 298
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD $10,561,043.00 5,965,343 199 $1.74125 5.24% 6
Anderson, SC $331,261.00 187,126 200 $1.74111 5.24% 222
Jacksonville, NC $314,639.00 177,772 201 $1.74076 5.21% 227
Jonesboro, AR $213,245.00 121,026 202 $1.73297 4.74% 312
Sumter, SC $188,886.00 107,456 203 $1.72886 4.49% 333
Bloomington-Normal, IL $297,450.00 169,572 204 $1.72524 4.28% 235
Bismarck, ND $190,424.00 108,779 205 $1.72174 4.06% 330
Champaign-Urbana, IL $404,833.00 231,891 206 $1.71704 3.78% 192
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA $438,118.00 251,133 207 $1.71584 3.71% 182
Lawrence, KS $192,383.00 110,826 208 $1.70732 3.19% 328
San Antonio, TX $3,716,198.00 2,142,508 209 $1.70595 3.11% 24
Des Moines, IA $986,927.00 569,633 210 $1.70404 3.00% 88
Spokane, WA $815,061.00 471,221 211 $1.70120 2.82% 108
Tyler, TX $362,634.00 209,714 212 $1.70071 2.79% 200
Athens-Clarke County, GA $332,237.00 192,541 213 $1.69713 2.58% 219
Wichita, KS $1,073,694.00 623,061 214 $1.69488 2.44% 86
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY $1,154,051.00 670,301 215 $1.69334 2.35% 79
Joplin, MO $301,371.00 175,518 216 $1.68877 2.07% 231
Abilene, TX $282,987.00 165,252 217 $1.68426 1.80% 240
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH $7,793,647.00 4,552,402 218 $1.68380 1.77% 10
San Angelo, TX $191,352.00 111,823 219 $1.68303 1.73% 325
Topeka, KS $400,150.00 233,870 220 $1.68282 1.71% 189
Pocatello, ID $155,071.00 90,656 221 $1.68238 1.69% 355
Madison, WI $971,417.00 568,593 222 $1.68033 1.56% 89
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC $2,848,285.00 1,671,683 223 $1.67579 1.29% 36
Lubbock, TX $483,463.00 284,890 224 $1.66908 0.88% 161
Tuscaloosa, AL $371,157.00 219,461 225 $1.66337 0.54% 195
Sherman-Denison, TX $203,597.00 120,877 226 $1.65660 0.13% 314
La Crosse, WI-MN $224,725.00 133,665 227 $1.65357 -0.06% 290
Grand Forks, ND-MN $165,417.00 98,461 228 $1.65236 -0.13% 346
Waco, TX $394,549.00 234,906 229 $1.65195 -0.15% 188
Longview, TX $359,095.00 214,369 230 $1.64754 -0.42% 197
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX $650,601.00 388,745 231 $1.64604 -0.51% 132
Cape Girardeau-Jackson, MO-IL   $160,928.00 96,275 232 $1.64403 -0.63% 350
Kansas City, MO-KS $3,396,584.00 2,035,334 233 $1.64133 -0.80% 29
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO $772,340.00 463,204 234 $1.63993 -0.88% 107
Peoria, IL $631,004.00 379,186 235 $1.63670 -1.07% 135
Corpus Christi, TX $710,406.00 428,185 236 $1.63179 -1.37% 114
Sioux Falls, SD $378,499.00 228,261 237 $1.63088 -1.43% 191
Decatur, IL $183,380.00 110,768 238 $1.62828 -1.58% 331
Manchester-Nashua, NH $663,068.00 400,721 239 $1.62744 -1.63% 130
Boise City-Nampa, ID $1,017,199.00 616,561 240 $1.62263 -1.93% 85
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI $15,568,610.00 9,461,105 241 $1.61844 -2.18% 3
Eau Claire, WI $265,021.00 161,151 242 $1.61748 -2.24% 243
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI $274,532.00 166,994 243 $1.61690 -2.27% 238
Savannah, GA $570,207.00 347,611 244 $1.61335 -2.49% 143
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR $1,147,493.00 699,757 245 $1.61285 -2.52% 72
Rome, GA $157,878.00 96,317 246 $1.61216 -2.56% 352
Burlington-South Burlington, VT $346,073.00 211,261 247 $1.61116 -2.62% 201
Warner Robins, GA $229,125.00 139,900 248 $1.61081 -2.64% 274
Victoria, TX $188,788.00 115,384 249 $1.60923 -2.74% 320
Macon, GA $378,813.00 232,293 250 $1.60391 -3.06% 190
Columbus, GA-AL $480,773.00 294,865 251 $1.60364 -3.07% 157
Midland, TX $221,613.00 136,872 252 $1.59247 -3.75% 281
Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC $2,845,880.00 1,758,038 253 $1.59213 -3.77% 33
Valdosta, GA $225,264.00 139,588 254 $1.58721 -4.07% 278
Kankakee-Bradley, IL $182,897.00 113,449 255 $1.58561 -4.16% 324
Brunswick, GA $181,130.00 112,370 256 $1.58537 -4.18% 326
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI $2,506,228.00 1,555,908 257 $1.58426 -4.24% 39
Danville, IL $131,406.00 81,625 258 $1.58337 -4.30% 360
Albany, GA $253,037.00 157,308 259 $1.58206 -4.38% 252
Logan, UT-ID $201,329.00 125,442 260 $1.57853 -4.59% 304
New Haven-Milford, CT $1,384,050.00 862,477 261 $1.57832 -4.60% 60
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX $649,274.00 405,300 262 $1.57558 -4.77% 127
Green Bay, WI $490,506.00 306,241 263 $1.57533 -4.78% 152
Rockford, IL $559,542.00 349,431 264 $1.57493 -4.81% 145
Fond du Lac, WI $161,165.00 101,633 265 $1.55964 -5.73% 341
Manhattan, KS   $201,274.00 127,081 266 $1.55775 -5.85% 297
Cedar Rapids, IA $408,023.00 257,940 267 $1.55581 -5.96% 177
Odessa, TX $216,475.00 137,130 268 $1.55262 -6.16% 282
Albuquerque, NM $1,399,881.00 887,077 269 $1.55210 -6.19% 57
Wenatchee, WA $174,873.00 110,884 270 $1.55112 -6.25% 327
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island,NY-NJ-PA $29,682,674.00 18,897,109 271 $1.54489 -6.62% 1
Sheboygan, WI $181,234.00 115,507 272 $1.54320 -6.73% 323
Norwich-New London, CT $429,665.00 274,055 273 $1.54199 -6.80% 170
Wausau, WI $210,056.00 134,063 274 $1.54105 -6.86% 291
Gainesville, GA $280,222.00 179,684 275 $1.53385 -7.29% 225
Appleton, WI $350,752.00 225,666 276 $1.52871 -7.60% 194
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT $1,877,815.00 1,212,381 277 $1.52336 -7.93% 45
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA $1,333,208.00 865,350 278 $1.51529 -8.41% 58
Racine, WI $301,037.00 195,408 279 $1.51519 -8.42% 217
Janesville, WI $246,458.00 160,331 280 $1.51187 -8.62% 250
Las Cruces, NM $321,250.00 209,233 281 $1.51009 -8.73% 199
Mankato-North Mankato, MN $147,728.00 96,740 282 $1.50192 -9.22% 348
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI $1,178,645.00 774,160 283 $1.49741 -9.49% 69
McAllen-Edinburg-Pharr, TX $1,179,244.00 774,769 284 $1.49700 -9.52% 68
Duluth, MN-WI $425,512.00 279,771 285 $1.49589 -9.59% 165
Yakima, WA $369,819.00 243,231 286 $1.49541 -9.61% 187
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA $177,569.00 116,901 287 $1.49396 -9.70% 315
Dalton, GA $215,804.00 142,227 288 $1.49234 -9.80% 277
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA $19,390,317.00 12,828,837 289 $1.48658 -10.15% 2
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX $612,204.00 406,220 290 $1.48226 -10.41% 124
Fairbanks, AK $147,010.00 97,581 291 $1.48174 -10.44% 343
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA $6,352,361.00 4,224,851 292 $1.47881 -10.62% 12
Longview, WA $153,768.00 102,410 293 $1.47677 -10.74% 340
Bellingham, WA $301,501.00 201,140 294 $1.47428 -10.89% 209
Rochester, MN $278,633.00 186,011 295 $1.47328 -10.95% 223
Columbia, SC $1,148,180.00 767,598 296 $1.47118 -11.08% 70
El Paso, TX $1,192,338.00 800,647 297 $1.46470 -11.47% 65
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI $4,842,583.00 3,279,833 298 $1.45216 -12.23% 16
Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA $114,891.00 77,917 299 $1.45025 -12.34% 361
Raleigh-Cary, NC $1,663,591.00 1,130,490 300 $1.44734 -12.52% 47
St. Cloud, MN $277,151.00 189,093 301 $1.44155 -12.87% 221
Laredo, TX $366,846.00 250,304 302 $1.44147 -12.88% 181
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA $393,949.00 269,637 303 $1.43698 -13.15% 171
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA $3,125,517.00 2,149,127 304 $1.43037 -13.55% 25
Hanford-Corcoran, CA $221,963.00 152,982 305 $1.42702 -13.75% 260
Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX $8,591,542.00 5,946,800 306 $1.42095 -14.12% 5
Lincoln, NE $435,900.00 302,157 307 $1.41888 -14.24% 154
Charleston-North Charleston, SC $958,180.00 664,607 308 $1.41799 -14.29% 78
Olympia, WA $361,151.00 252,264 309 $1.40807 -14.89% 180
Corvallis, OR $122,493.00 85,579 310 $1.40778 -14.91% 358
Fargo, ND-MN $298,526.00 208,777 311 $1.40634 -15.00% 202
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA $7,462,139.00 5,268,860 312 $1.39295 -15.81% 9
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA $371,038.00 262,382 313 $1.39083 -15.94% 175
Chico, CA $310,836.00 220,000 314 $1.38963 -16.01% 196
Eugene-Springfield, OR $496,260.00 351,715 315 $1.38774 -16.12% 144
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA $595,677.00 423,895 316 $1.38211 -16.46% 118
Redding, CA $249,004.00 177,223 317 $1.38190 -16.48% 228
Napa, CA $191,518.00 136,484 318 $1.38012 -16.58% 284
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA $677,960.00 483,878 319 $1.37803 -16.71% 104
Colorado Springs, CO $897,143.00 645,613 320 $1.36672 -17.39% 81
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA $4,279,163.00 3,095,313 321 $1.35970 -17.82% 17
Idaho Falls, ID $177,313.00 130,374 322 $1.33764 -19.15% 294
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA $5,859,991.00 4,335,391 323 $1.32941 -19.65% 11
Ogden-Clearfield, UT $737,490.00 547,184 324 $1.32560 -19.88% 93
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA $2,472,499.00 1,836,911 325 $1.32385 -19.98% 31
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA $554,586.00 413,344 326 $1.31961 -20.24% 123
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA $1,102,236.00 823,318 327 $1.31673 -20.41% 63
Denver-Aurora, CO $3,395,406.00 2,543,482 328 $1.31296 -20.64% 21
Medford, OR $268,465.00 203,206 329 $1.29939 -21.46% 207
Durham, NC $666,098.00 504,357 330 $1.29894 -21.49% 102
Salinas, CA $544,618.00 415,057 331 $1.29055 -22.00% 121
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX $8,355,402.00 6,371,773 332 $1.28972 -22.05% 4
Anchorage, AK $499,298.00 380,821 333 $1.28952 -22.06% 133
Austin-Round Rock, TX $2,235,782.00 1,716,289 334 $1.28124 -22.56% 34
Bend, OR $205,348.00 157,733 335 $1.28044 -22.61% 248
Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA $325,878.00 253,340 336 $1.26515 -23.53% 176
Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA $2,855,767.00 2,226,009 337 $1.26179 -23.74% 23
Salem, OR $500,670.00 390,738 338 $1.26025 -23.83% 131
Madera, CA $191,973.00 150,865 339 $1.25153 -24.36% 262
Boulder, CO $374,413.00 294,567 340 $1.25013 -24.44% 159
Modesto, CA $653,370.00 514,453 341 $1.24912 -24.50% 100
Grand Junction, CO $186,143.00 146,723 342 $1.24778 -24.58% 269
Fresno, CA $1,179,885.00 930,450 343 $1.24720 -24.62% 55
Pueblo, CO $200,950.00 159,063 344 $1.24254 -24.90% 246
El Centro, CA $220,389.00 174,528 345 $1.24198 -24.93% 230
Yuba City, CA $210,683.00 166,892 346 $1.24160 -24.96% 239
Stockton, CA $862,343.00 685,306 347 $1.23761 -25.20% 76
Bakersfield, CA $1,051,318.00 839,631 348 $1.23150 -25.57% 61
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV $6,970,911.00 5,582,170 349 $1.22822 -25.76% 7
Salt Lake City, UT $1,401,163.00 1,124,197 350 $1.22585 -25.91% 48
Greeley, CO $314,296.00 252,825 351 $1.22267 -26.10% 179
Tallahassee, FL $453,660.00 367,413 352 $1.21441 -26.60% 138
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA $4,226,240.00 3,439,809 353 $1.20840 -26.96% 15
Merced, CA $308,988.00 255,793 354 $1.18807 -28.19% 178
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT $1,105,338.00 916,829 355 $1.18576 -28.33% 56
Visalia-Porterville, CA $531,838.00 442,179 356 $1.18296 -28.50% 111
St. George, UT $165,901.00 138,115 357 $1.18140 -28.59% 279
Santa Fe, NM $164,210.00 144,170 358 $1.12025 -32.29% 271
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO $340,812.00 299,630 359 $1.11871 -32.38% 155
Provo-Orem, UT $517,472.00 526,810 360 $0.96610 -41.61% 97

Today is International Women’s Day

March 8th is International Women’s Day, and as a women-owned business, Chmura is pleased to highlight some results from a recent report that we completed on the State of Women Owned Business in Virginia. The inaugural report was undertaken by the National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO) Richmond Chapter, and included a survey of Women Owned Businesses (WOBs) in Virginia, in order to better support women entrepreneurs in Virginia and understand their business characteristics.

Some of the key findings of the study include:

Women-owned businesses in the U.S., including those in Virginia, have experienced robust growth in recent years. Nationally, women-owned businesses grew an annual average of 5.0% per year from 2007 to 2012. In Virginia the number of WOBs grew an average 4.3% per year over this period.

In 2012, there were over 9.9 million women-owned businesses in the nation, accounting for 36.0% of all firms. In Virginia, there were 237,371 WOBs, which accounted for 36.3% of total firms.

Total revenue of all WOBs in Virginia was $45.0 billion in 2012, and $1,616.3 billion in the U.S.

WOBs responding to the survey in Virginia tend to rely on personal finances for funding their businesses. Only a small percentage use structured borrowing such as commercial or government loans. In general, a credit card is the most popular tool for respondent WOBs to fund their business needs.

43% of responding WOBs expressed a need for mentorship. Of responding WOBs that have been in existence for 1 year or less, 68.4% said they need mentors.

For more detail and other findings, an executive summary of the report is available online at http://nawborichmond.org/state-of-women-owned-business-in-virginia/.

Searching for Commonality in STEM Occupation Definitions

The media often reports that STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) jobs are in-demand.  They have been growing, are expected to continue growing, and generally pay a good wage. But when it comes to the occupations that should count as“STEM jobs,” there is far less agreement.

Forecasts and reports of STEM growth are often cited in the media, but different definitions make comparisons between studies extremely difficult, if not impossible. To explore this problem, we compared four often-used definitions of STEM occupations:

Among the different definitions, 314 unique occupation titles were identified as STEM. Those 314 titles represent over a third of the 840 detailed Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes.[1]

The Department of Commerce study had the narrowest definition, with 54 occupations. The SOC Policy Committee recommended 184 STEM occupation codes and was the only definition to include healthcare occupations (64 health occupations).

Common STEM Occupational Definitions Between Four Sources

Only 17 titles were included in all four definitions of STEM occupations. About half of these 17 occupations are engineers, while another 4 are related to computer science. Math is represented by mathematicians and statisticians, while science is limited to astronomers, atmospheric and space scientists, and natural sciences managers.

Based on the 4 STEM definitions reviewed here, the following 17 occupations should be included in any analysis of STEM jobs, though they are clearly not comprehensive (the complete list is shown in alphabetical order):

STEM Occupations Defined in All Four Sources
Aerospace Engineers Computer Programmers
Agricultural Engineers Database Administrators
Astronomers Environmental Engineers
Atmospheric and Space Scientists Mathematicians
Biomedical Engineers Mechanical Engineers
Chemical Engineers Natural Sciences Managers
Computer and Information Systems Managers Nuclear Engineers
Computer Hardware Engineers Petroleum Engineers
Statisticians
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics

Similarly, 22 occupations were included in three definitions. Often in this category, the incongruence between sources is due to SOC code changes over time and/or degree of detail in the occupation code chosen (the full list is presented in the table below in alphabetical order):

STEM Occupations Defined in Three Sources
Biochemists and Biophysicists

Marine Engineers and Naval Architects

Biological Technicians

Materials Engineers

Chemical Technicians

Materials Scientists

Chemists

Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers

Civil Engineers

Network and Computer Systems Administrators

Computer and Information Research Scientists

Operations Research Analysts

Computer Network Architects

Physicists

Electrical Engineers

Sales Engineers

Electronics Engineers, Except Computer

Software Developers, Applications

Industrial Engineers

Software Developers, Systems Software

Information Security Analysts

Surveying and Mapping Technicians

Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics

Although the definition of STEM is somewhat dependent on how the information is used, there is some common ground in defining STEM occupations. Thirty-nine detailed occupation codes match across at least three sources, and 64 of the 215 codes with only one source can be explained by their relation to healthcare—usually differentiated in STEM-H definitions.

As we read and conduct studies about STEM jobs, these common occupations should be kept in mind as the types of jobs typically considered “STEM.”

The full list of occupations and number of sources is show here: STEM Occupations.

Research support provided by Patrick Clapp.

[1] Some of the occupations are from older SOC definitions, cross two or more codes, or are otherwise not included in the standard detailed codes (hence much of the problem with pinning down a definition).